Archive | Resource

Teaching The History, Music And Activism Of U2 In Newly Published Book

Dave Whitt, Professor of Communication Studies at Nebraska Wesleyan University, has published the edited collection of essays Popular Music in the Classroom: Essays for Instructors with McFarland Press (2020).

In addition to editing the book, Whitt contributed an essay of his own, “Songs of Ascent: Teaching the History, Music and Activism of U2,” drawing on his experience teaching a class about U2 at NWU.

Whitt co-presented some of his findings about teaching U2 in a college classroom with Georgia Straka at the 2018 U2 Conference PopVision.

McFarland describes Popular Music in the Classroom: Essays for Instructors this way:

“Popular music has long been a subject of academic inquiry, with college courses taught on Elvis Presley, Bob Dylan, and the Beatles, along with more contemporary artists like Beyonce and Outkast. This collection of essays draws upon the knowledge and expertise of instructors from a variety of disciplines who have taught classes on popular music. Topics include: the analysis of music genres such as American folk, Latin American protest music, and Black music; exploring the musical catalog and socio-cultural relevance of specific artists; and discussing how popular music can be used to teach subjects such as history, identity, race, gender, and politics. Instructional strategies for educators are provided. More specific chapter topics include: Elvis Presley, psychedelic music of the 1960s, The Beatles, Jimi Hendrix, heavy metal, country, and using game theory to teach music.”

For more resources for studying and teaching U2, please see the U2 Studies Bibliography.

Extra Resources And A Discount For U2: A Love Story

Contributed by Brian Johnston, Ph.D, Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Media, Journalism & Film, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio

As co-author of U2: A Love Story, I invite you to visit our website for the book. My favorite pages on the site are “The Mix Tape” and the “Classroom.” The “Themes” page explains how we understand “Myth,” “Love,” and “Liminality.”

I also want to invite you to name your own price for the book if its cost is too high for you right now. I have copies to sell and and if you email me, I’d be happy to accept what you can afford. My contact page is here.

Our study of U2 is unique. It’s from the perspective of love, specifically agape, amor, and eros. Susan Mackey-Kallis and I are both fans of the band, and rather than hiding this we embrace it and work that into our study of U2’s ongoing popularity. We also see a profoundly mythic journey in U2’s career, co-constructed by the band and its fans, that makes sense in hindsight but was not really visible from the start — which is precisely how mythic journeys play out.

One final point about the book that helped me understand my own fandom more clearly, as well as my personal journey and struggle with spirituality and faith, is how love is made into a force unto itself bigger than the band, more encompassing than a mere personal experience. And the central message, over time, seems to be Tat tvam asi — the Hindu expression in Sanskrit meaning “thou art that” — which we U2 fans have long understood as “One, but not the same” or “No them, there’s only us.”

We understand that the Spirit throes itself out to us through whatever medium it chooses, no matter where we are, who we are, or what we think we are about. But then it takes real work, real community, and at times painful lessons (culturally) or transformations (personally) to realize its full potential. Our study of U2, its fans and the mythic journey they’ve been on as such is one we hope you’ll enjoy.

If you’re interested in our book, want to talk more or need some help buying a copy, please don’t hesitate to contact me.

From The “Anxious Bench” to the Cereal Aisle: Chad E. Seales On How Bono, Revivalists and Neoliberal Capitalists Are One But Not The Same

I enjoyed listening to Chad E. Seales, author of Religion Around Bono: Evangelical Enchantment and Neoliberal Capitalism (Penn State University Press, 2019), in two recent interviews on the ways Bono is in the tradition of both religious revival preachers, such as early American Presbyterian minister Charles Grandison Finney, and neoliberal capitalists, such as economist Jeffrey Sachs, former U.S. President Barack Obama and current U.S. President Donald Trump.

Seems like an odd cohort to belong to, doesn’t it? And it sounds like maybe Seales has joined the tradition of treating Bono like an easy target for cheap shots. But not so fast. I appreciate Seales’ analysis and constructive criticism and I think he wants to be a part of a conversation worth having. In both interviews, Seales offers helpful context, especially in the second, longer interview, and I thought he fairly credited Bono with intending to do good things in his position of wealth and influence.

Seals describes himself as a U2 fan who grew up in the American Evangelical Christian tradition. He is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Texas at Austin and also the author of The Secular Spectacle: Performing Religion in a Southern Town (Oxford University Press, 2013). His academic work here is, I think, a valuable addition to both U2 studies and studies of U2 fans. I wouldn’t mind talking with Seales myself, and while I might not reach all of the same conclusions he does, I’ve already learned from his explanation of how the processes work in a system channeling celebrity influence, religious appeals and capitalist principles.

I recommend listing to both interviews in full. One was with Western Michigan’s WGVU host Shelly Irwin (May 18, 2020, 8:10) and the other was with KPFK Pacifica’s Rising Up With Sonali” hosted by Sonali Kolhatkar (April 21, 2020, 19:18).

I pulled these quotes from the interviews just because they were the more interesting ones to me.

Seales explains to WGVU’s Shelly Irwin that he sees Bono as similar to early 1800’s American revivalist Charles Finney in his adaptation of Finney’s “anxious bench” technique in U2 concerts. He speaks to this point from the 5:00 – 6:40 mark, during which he says:

[Bono] comes from an Evangelical revival tradition. He takes the message of Evangelicalism into the world through secular means, and this is part of the tradition going back to the Second Great Awakening in American revival history. … And Bono does similar things in his concerts, not in a way to convert you to save your soul but to convert you to his cause, which are moral and social causes in Africa.

During the course of his conversation on “Rising Up With Sonali,” in which host Kolhatkar takes a more critical tone toward Bono than Irwin did, Seales said:

There’s a way in which Bono packages this evangelical spirituality such that it’s both non-offensive in the sense that it’s not being pushed on anybody, in the sense of someone not wanting to hear it, and it’s also sort of an open secret. Bono speaks of it as drawing fish in the sand. The messages are there for those who can see them, hear them, and want to find them, and it’s also kind of not there at all for fans who just wouldn’t catch onto the underlying religious themes. (starting at 3:36)

Bono is an icon of the ability of capitalism to absorb critique and restructure itself in such a way that it continues to maintain its both external status as intervening from the outside in and the ways in which multinational corporations are not in any way forced to revise their policies. (starting at 7:14)

Bono, like Oprah, sees no contradiction in making money, lots of money, but it’s a ‘good’ … if it’s in the service of a higher calling, a transcendent purpose. And in this case Bono’s transcendent purpose [are] the causes he champions in Africa. (starting at 13:58)

There’s a kind of scarcity that plays into these Evangelical models of [entrepreneurship] in that you have to earn it in the sense of economically, in the same way that you’re responsible for your own salvation as an Evangelical. (starting at 15:03)

Bono’s version of evangelicalism is closer to Barack Obama’s, or it’s closer to the Democratic Party’s in the United States, so one of the ironies is liberal progressives who are huge fans of U2 … are also sharing, in economic terms, the evangelicalism that undergirds the Religious Right. (starting at 16:11)

If you look and actually compare the economic practices of Trump versus Bono, they’re quite similar … but on the surface in terms of their progressive politics they are totally different brands. So one of the things to keep in mind in terms of religion is that there’s a kind of religious convergence underneath what appears to be separate economic brands. (starting at 16:33)

And lastly, after making a helpful analogy to how an aisle of cereal at the grocery looks like it has a plurality of difference even though all of the boxes contain mostly the same ingredients, Seales says:

The underlying ingredient that both Bono shares with Trump that shares with former President Obama is this notion of free markets. … The key signals of neoliberal policies are the privatization of public goods and services and a deregulation on a global sense of free markets.” (starting at 16:10)

Bono Bios For Young Readers

Are your young kids now “stuck in a moment” at home, looking for more to read? Why not introduce them to your favorite rock star activist? And if you’re doing the homeschooling, with this mini-library of seven choices you could even create a whole lesson unit on Bono for young readers.

  • Tell someone three things you learned about Bono from this book.
  • Compare and contrast two biographies of Bono. Which one did you like better and why?
  • What makes Bono want to help people who are hungry, sick, or treated unfairly?
  • Try writing a song about something you can do to help someone else.
  • You get the idea …

If your child reads one of these books and wants to write a super short book report, I’d love to publish it on this site for others to read. Really! Contact me if you are interested.

All of these books are still in print and available for order online. They are listed below with complete bibliographic details. They are also listed on the U2 Studies Bibliography, along with 100+ resources for fans, students, and scholars of U2.

If you are looking for a high school reading level book on Bono or U2, I suggest the two books by David Kootnikoff on the bibliography. (However, there are very few pictures in those books!)

An excellent, well-researched introduction to U2 for an adult reader is Timothy D. Neufeld’s U2: Rock ‘n’ Roll to Change the World.

Seven Bono Biographies for Young Readers

Ditchfield, Christin. Bono. Life Skills Biographies. Ann Arbor, MI: Cherry Lake Publishing, 2008. (For elementary or middle school readings levels, 43 pages.) Bono (Life Skills Biographies) (9781602790667 ...

Helme, Deborah. A Powerful Voice: The Story of Bono from U2. The Faith In Action Series. Norwich, Norfolk: RMEP, 2004. (For elementary or middle school readings levels, 24 pages.)

9781851753215: A Powerful Voice (Faith in Action) - AbeBooks ...

Huston, Jennifer L. U2: Changing the World Through Rock ‘n’ Roll. Legends of Rock Series. North Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2015. (For elementary or middle school readings levels, 29 pages.) U2: Changing the World Through Rock 'n' Roll (Legends ...

Kamberg, Mary-Lane. Bono: Fighting World Hunger and Poverty. Celebrity Activists Series. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing, 2008. (For elementary or middle school readings levels, 112 pages.) Bono: Fighting World Hunger and Poverty (Celebrity ...

Trachtenberg, Martha. Bono: Rock Star Activist. Berkley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2008. (For elementary or middle school readings levels, 110 pages.) Bono: Rock Star Activist (People to Know Today ...

Washburn, Kim. Breaking Through by Grace: The Bono Story. Grand Rapids, MI: Zonderkidz/Zondervan, 2010. (For elementary or middle school readings levels, 93 pages.)

Winckelmann, Thom, and Lynn Abushanab. Bono: Rock Star & Humanitarian. Edina, MN: ABDO Publishing, 2010. (For elementary or middle school readings levels, 94 pages.)

Bono: Rock Star and Humanitarian by Thom Winckelmann, Lynn ...

Bono One Of 50 “Stand-Up Guys” In New Book For Young Readers

In Interview, Authors Say Bono Has Been “Willing To Do What It Takes” To Advance God’s Work

Kate Etue and Caroline Siegrist selected Bono as one of their Stand-Up Guys: 50 Christian Men Who Changed the World. Their new book is out today from the Zonderkidz imprint of Zondervan.

Bono is in the company of a global list of men drawn from the past and present. They are notable for practicing their Christian faith with unique acts of kindness, with some going as far as sacrificing his own life. Each of the 50 men has a one-page description of what makes them a world-changer, followed by a few questions to inspire readers.

For Bono, the authors explained he experienced personal loss as a teenager and later became aware of violence and injustice in Ireland. He turned to music to help him with his grief and anger, instead of turning to others things that wouldn’t have been good for him.

After finding some success with his friends in a band, “Bono’s faith told him that just being a ‘good voice’ wasn’t enough. God wanted him to go out and see what he was doing around the world, so Bono could get involved in God’s work. So Bono and his wife, Ali, traveled to Ethiopia to volunteer at an orphanage.”

I spoke with Kate Etue by email to learn more about why she and her co-author picked Bono as one of their top 50 “Stand-Up” guys. I also learned Etue and Siegrist are already working on their next book, tentatively titled Fierce Faith: 50 Christian Women Who Changed the World.

U2 Studies Network: Bono’s not the only rock-star activist out there, but he’s the only one in your book. Why did you pick him?

Kate Etue: I have followed Bono’s work for years, particularly his focus on eliminating extreme poverty and AIDS in Africa. He’s long been a hero of mine for his passionate response to God’s call to care for the poor, and that’s why we picked him. There are so many people doing great things in the world, but Bono’s long track record in this area made him rise to the top of our list.

Were you or your publisher concerned about any pushback from some Christian readers who might wonder why Bono is on your list?

Not at all! We really wanted to choose people who were interesting, honest, and authentic in their work. We steered away from those who tried to present a squeaky-clean image and focused on those who are willing to do what it takes—sometimes hard, unpopular things—to advance God’s kingdom around the planet. We’ve chosen climate change activists, vegans, disability advocates, and immigrant-rights activists who may rub some people the wrong way, but we believe they’re all doing God’s work by loving others in Jesus’s name.

Are you a U2 fan as well, or more a fan of just Bono?

I grew up in a pretty conservative home when it came to entertainment, so I wasn’t exposed to much U2 other than their huge hits until college. But I became a big fan quickly, especially of their songs about political activism and faith. It was a dream of mine to get to work with them in some way, so when I had the chance to collaborate with DATA (the pre-cursor to the One Campaign) to include Bono’s essay and photos in a book I co-compiled called The aWAKE Project: Uniting Against the African AIDS Crisis, and then later on his original book On the Move, it was a dream come true. I’ve been lucky enough to see a few of their concerts, and it’s always an amazing experience.

Do you have a favorite U2 song? Maybe one that represents the qualities you are celebrating by including Bono in your book?

The song “Crumbs From Your Table comes to mind, which really calls out those people who talk a good talk but don’t actually do anything to effect change. And “Sunday Bloody Sunday” is a classic, where Bono’s lamenting how long mothers, sisters, brothers and children will have to be torn apart. Although he’s specifically talking about the violence in Northern Ireland in that song, I think it applies across generations, countries, and conflicts. His passion always comes through in his performance, and I believe that along with his faith and family is a huge part of what drives his work.

© Calhoun / The U2 Studies Network, 2020

A Closer Look at The “Nashville Summit” Photos

I wrote this article for @U2 yesterday, and I hope you read it (!). Please visit @U2 to read “Bono’s Support for PEPFAR Helped Save 27 Million Lives. Photos Emerge From 2002 ‘Nashville Summit’ With Contemporary Christian Musicians.”

In the article, I posted eight photographs taken by Ben Pearson, which he kindly shared with me. He still had his undeveloped negatives, which I scanned and transferred to digital images.

If you had trouble expanding the photos in the @U2 site article, I’ve posted the photos here too. You can zoom in on these photos and see more detail, and see the facial expressions better too. One photo is above and the other seven are below.

U2 Studies Alert | U2: Der er fans og så er der superfans [ There are fans and then there are superfans] / Brent Gringer

U2 fan, academic and journalist Brent Gringer published “U2: Der er fans og så er der superfans,” on December 6, 2019, in the online popular journal POV.

Gringer’s amazing longread essay of over 11,000 words is partly an informal study and partly a personal comment written in Danish on U2 fan behavior, focusing primarily on the motivations and strategies a segment of the U2 fandom have for seeing U2 live. He offers comments on the academic study of U2 and its fans as well.

Please help spread Gringer’s essay to U2 fans and academics reading Danish!

For an unofficial translation of Gringer’s essay in English, here is a PDF. If you know of someone who can supply a better translation, please contact us, as we’d like to offer the best translation possible in English of Gringer’s work.

U2 Aca-Fans, Geeks and Nerds at The World of Bob Dylan and Future U2 Conferences

Are you an aca-fan? Academics who are also fans of the subject they study are aca-fans (sometimes written as acafan). The term has been around for a while as have fan cultures and fandom studies.

There are plenty of online places to read more about aca-fans and what they do, from definition sites like this one, to a first-person “Confession of an Aca-Fan” from Henry Jenkins, who is said to have coined the term, to this recent essay on David Bowie fandom, which was published in The Fandom of David Bowie.

Toija Cinque, a co-author of The Fandom of David Bowie, wrote in another article titled Celebrity conferences as confessional spaces: the aca-fan memory traces of David Bowie’s stardom that:

The exchange of ideas between fans about stars and celebrities frequently takes place in informal circumstances, sometime face-to-face or in online forums and increasingly via social media such as Facebook. An increasingly important aspect of stardom and celebrity in contemporary societies finds now that there are important ‘new’ and professional spaces for commentary, discussion and thinking about star performers and the various affects of fandom itself. Such is the aca-fan conference.

If you’ve been to one of our U2 Conferences, or having been following along in the field of U2 Studies, you know exactly what an aca-fan is. You are, most likely, a U2 aca-fan yourself.

Kevin Dettmar, professor of English at Pomona College, attended the 2009 U2 Conference and presented his paper “Nothing Succeeds Like Failure: U2 and the Politics of Irony,” which he later contributed to Exploring U2: Is This Rock ‘n’ Roll? (Rowman and Littlefield, 2011).

In July, Dettmar wrote for The Chronicle of Higher Education about attending The World of Bob Dylan Symposium, a four-day conference on Bob Dylan at The University of Tulsa’s Institute for Bob Dylan Studies. Organizers expected about 200 attendees; they closed registration at 500.

“All Along the Ivory Tower: Amateur geeks and scholarly nerds come together to discuss Bob Dylan and his music,” shares Dettmar’s observations, personal experience and questions about the co-mingling of scholars and fans around a common subject. He shared the whole article with me and you can read it here.

I pulled some of Dettmar’s musings which I found to be most relevant to what I’ve noticed at U2 Conferences. Do his reactions strike a chord with you too? What’s been your aca-fan experience? What have the U2 Conferences done for you, and what would you like to see at the next U2 Conferences? Please leave your comments below.

Dettmar writes:

I had participated in a Dylan conference once before, one fully “scholarly” in design and tenor; the program and the talks were brilliant. But the Tulsa gathering was something different — something special. That’s reflected by the fact that it can with justice be described as a “gathering.” In part, it was a meeting of different “tribes”; in stark opposition to the traditional academic conference, the organizers had invited journalists, artists, and fans, as well as popular-music scholars. For many, the conference served as a kind of IRL meetup for folks who had known one another only from Dylan fan sites, message boards, and Facebook groups.

Most uncharitably, to both parties, the division might be described as “geeks” versus “nerds”; more conventionally, I suppose, the participants could tentatively be grouped into “fans” and “scholars.” The distinction is somewhat dubious, of course, but there’s something to it. One of the differences between fan and scholar involves the question of intentionality. Fans aspire to have the mind of Bob; scholars, in theory at least, seek rather to assess the achievement of the work, independent from what Dylan thought or said about it, to figure out not what Dylan meant, but what a given song, or album, or performance does. Scholars don’t care (or try not to care) about what Dylan thought he was doing, or was trying to do; we tend to hold to a more mysterious, even mystical, understanding of art, believing that the work always exceeds (and often contradicts) the explicit intentions of its maker. … Whereas fans, by and large, hold to a more mystical understanding of Dylan himself. For the fans, the credibility of an argument hinges on whether it jibes with their sense of what Bob was trying to do.

Another distinction that struck me that weekend is that fans’ way of seeing, analyzing, and questioning such topics is more detectivelike, more based in fact-finding, whereas scholars cherish the study of ideas. One practical consequence was that we scholars were quickly labeled the pundits, the ideas guys (and more often than not, guys took up the most space).

A final, but crucial, distinction between scholarly and fan interpretation concerns the question of context. Both scholars and fans seemed to eschew reading Dylan’s work in some orthodox New Critical fashion — they rejected the notion that Dylan’s songs alone were the sacred, self-contained source of interpretable meaning — but they had rather different reasons for doing so. The fans, too, spent a lot of time close reading Dylan’s texts, pressuring them to surrender their meanings, while also vigilantly attending to the contexts that framed their readings and proved their validity. For them, though, the principal context was what they conceived to be Dylan’s own intentions: Getting into the texts was a proxy for getting into Bob’s head.

A rich spirit of intellectual generosity reigned among the Dylan fans; I think all of the scholars were impressed with how unstinting they were with their considerable knowledge. We were also more than a little freaked out by them, truth be told, and even a little envious. It’s no secret that academics are routinely beset with professional anxieties, jealousies, and endless self-doubts. The fans, on the other hand, seemed completely untouched by things like “impostor syndrome.” But then again, they’re not impostors: What they know, they really know.

I chaired a session composed of one scholar and one fan — the latter, I’d guess, a late 20-something who said I should introduce him as an “independent basement scholar.” His talk on the world of Dylan fanzines was remarkable — as was the archive of that ephemera he has assembled, which he makes freely available via PDF to anyone who asks. The spirit of trading Dylan and Grateful Dead bootlegs is alive and well and living on the internet. … And the Dylan fans weren’t just generous with one another — they were generous with “us,” the scholars.

As should be clear by now — you will have figured it out far more quickly than I did — we scholars could learn a lot from the fans. This is not to suggest that conferences should be transformed into concerts (though I do think Dr. Freud would have something to say about the way I kept slipping up and calling it a Dylan concert rather than conference). But if we scholars think that fans’ analyses are lacking in rigor, our work would surely benefit from a bit of their enthusiasm, even joy.

Furthering the field of U2 Studies with Myth, Fan Culture, and the Popular Appeal of Liminality in the Music of U2

Looking for some back to school U2 studies reading? Here’s a newish book by Brian Johnston and Susan Mackey-kallis. More info at the book’s site and here’s a back-to-school sale flyer for a 30% discount on orders through Nov. 11, 2019.

Image may contain: 1 person, text

Brian Johnston is visiting assistant professor in the Department of Media, Journalism and Film at Miami University.

Susan Mackey-Kallis is associate professor in the Department of Communication at Villanova University.

U2 Studies Alert |Two CFPs: MeCCSA Brighton, UK 2020 & IASPM-US Ann Arbor, MI, USA 2020

U2 Studies Alerts share opportunities for research, writing, learning, and participation in projects and events related to U2 and topics associated with U2 that might be of interest to fans, students and scholars. Alerts are collected from a variety of sources and archived and distributed by Search this site for “U2 Studies Alert” to find more.

All needed details for each alert should be in the body text, but
contact if you need more information or have an item to share for a future alert.

I have two Call for Papers to pass along today for U2 students and scholars. If you enjoy U2 and the fan culture around U2 and are looking for ways to combine your U2 fandom with your academic development, consider submitting proposals to these conferences on a topic that interests you about U2’s music, work and influence and would also fit within the framework of these conference topics.

MeCCSA Brighton 2020

1. MeCCSA 2020, University of Brighton, UK
Conference Theme – Media Interactions and Environments
8-10 January 2020
CFP submission deadline: 31 August 2019

More information about the Call for Papers and the Conference Theme.

Interactions with media are increasingly woven into the textures and cultural politics of our everyday lives. When the spaces of our homes, shops, schools, offices and cities are so intensively mediatised, media become our environment, brought to life through our mundane, personal, professional, creative, commercial and political interactions. What might be the wider implications of these media and cultural experiences and encounters? Whose voices and perspectives are included or excluded, and how are power and agency reconfigured, realigned and reproduced in this complex media landscape?

The theme Media Interactions and Environments is designed to address this critical moment in contemporary media culture, and appeal to a broad range of media, communication and cultural studies topics, interests and approaches.This conference theme is deliberately expansive, so as to include, amongst others, analysis of media texts, technologies, practices, audiences, institutions and experiences. Media interactions might be digital, cultural, political, emotional and imaginative. Environments could be spatial, political, representational, urban, local, physical, virtual and ecological. Our aim is to enable the MeCCSA community to question how we should live responsibly and ethically in a politically and ecologically changing world, through an exploration of the central role of media cultures and creative practices in addressing social, political and climate-based challenges.

2. IASPM-US 2020 Conference: “BPM: Bodies, Places, Movements”
May 21-23, 2020
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

CFP submission deadline: 1 October 2019

More information about the Call for Papers and the Conference Theme.

The theme for this year’s conference is “BPM: Bodies, Places, Movements,” which intersects with Detroit and its storied place in rhythm and blues, rock, punk, pop, hip-hop, and electronic dance music, and is intended to connect the histories, philosophies, and practices of urban spaces to other historical and global popular music communities. Each year Detroit celebrates this local-meets-global history with the Movement Electronic Music Festival, which in 2020 will commence the same weekend as the IASPM-US conference.

BPM as a marker for “Beats Per Minute” was first included on records to allow DJs to sync disco and funk selections together on the fly and has since become an important digital tool to create, alter and interweave tracks. In addition to its practical musical applications, the creation of BPM encodes an array of social and cultural histories: urban migration; industrialization and its reverberations in deindustrialization and urban renewal; the cultural, racial, and class politics of white flight, capital departure, and gentrification; social movements from the Second Great Awakening, Civil Rights, and Fair Housing through neo-conservatism, white nationalism, and millennial populism; and the myriad communities that articulate their ideals, utopias, frustrations and joys through popular music and its attendant practices, in garages, studios, music halls, warehouses, and digital spaces. 

The U2 Conference logo and site design by Beth Nabi.